module 01:
Atoms


module 02:
Periodic Table / Elements


module 03:
Chemical Bonds


module 04:
Nomenclature


module 05:
Structures of Matter


module 06:
Substances of the environment


module 07:
Chemical Reactions


module 08:
Reactions in Equilibrium


module 09:
Acid-base-reactions


module 10:
Redox reactions


module 11:
Carbon chemistry


module 12:
Biochemistry


module 13:
Qualitative analysis


module 14:
Quantitative analysis


module 15:
Chemical Industry

module 16:
Reactions in the environment

TABLES FOR CHEMISTRY

Content:

I. Acids and conjugated bases

II. The Greek alphabeth

III. Composition of human body

IV. Distances between atoms, in 10-10 M

V. The elements and some properties

VI. Bonding energy

VII. Phases

VIII. Indicators

IX. Nomenclature in Carbon chemistry

X. REDOX half reactions

XI. Solubility of salts in water

XII. decimal prefixes

XIII. Dangerous substances

XIV. Periodic Table

XV. Periodic Table, main groups only

XVI. Amino acids






I. Acids and conjugated bases

                                                                  
ACID Ka pKa pijlen (8K) BASE Kb pKb
HClO4 >>>1 <<0 pijlen (8K) ClO4- <<<1 >>14
HI >>>1 <<0 pijlen (8K) I- <<<1 >>14
HBr >>>1 <<0 pijlen (8K) Br- <<<1 >>14
HCl >>>1 <<0 pijlen (8K) Cl- <<<1 >>14
H2SO4 >>>1 <<0 pijlen (8K) HSO4- <<<1 >>14
HNO3 >>>1 <<0 pijlen (8K) NO3- <<<1 >>14
HClO3 >>>1 <<0 pijlen (8K) ClO3- <<<1 >>14
             
H3O+ ±55.6 ±1.75  pijlen (8K) H2O ±0.02 x 10-14 ±15.75
             
(H2SO3) 10-2  ±2  pijlen (8K) HSO3-  ±10-12 ±12
HSO4- 10-2 ±2  pijlen (8K) SO42- ±10-12 ±12
H3PO4 10-2 ±2 pijlen (8K) H2PO4- ±10-12 ±12
HF 10-3 ±3 pijlen (8K) F- ±10-11 ±11
HCOOH  10-4 ±4 pijlen (8K) HCOO- ±10-10 ±10
CH3COOH  10-4 ±4  pijlen (8K) CH3COO- ±10-10  ±10
Al(H2O)63+ 10-5 ±5  pijlen (8K) Al(OH)(H2O)52+ ±10-9 ±9
(H2CO3) 10-6 ±6  pijlen (8K) HCO3-  ±10-8 ±8
H2 10-7 ±7  pijlen (8K) HS- ±10-7 ±7
H2PO4- 10-7 ±7  pijlen (8K) HPO42- ±10-7  ±7
HSO3- 10-8  ±8 pijlen (8K) SO32- ±10-6  ±6
NH4+ 10-10 ±10 pijlen (8K) NH3 ±10-4  ±4
HCO3-  10-10  ±10  pijlen (8K) CO32-   ±10-4  ±4
HPO42- 10-13  ±13  pijlen (8K) PO43- ±10-1 ±1
HS-  10-13 ±13  pijlen (8K) S2- ±10-1 ±1
             
H2 ±0.02 x 10-14 ±15.75 pijlen (8K) OH- ±55,6  ±1.75
             
the lower in this table, the weaker the acid     the lower in this table, the stronger the base  


Strong acids have weak conjugated bases, en vice versa
The values of K and pK are rounded.



II. The Greek alphabeth

Greek letters (capitals and small) often are used as symbols in science.

A a

alfa

B b

beta

Dd

delta

E e

epsilon

G g

gama

C c

chis

F j

fi

H h

eta

I i

iota

K k

kapa

L l

lambda

M m

mi

N n

ni

O o

omicron

P p

pi

Q q

teta

R r

rho

S s

sigma

T t

tau

U u

upsilon

W w

omega

X x

csi

Y y

psi

Z z

zeta




III. Composition of human body

Water: H2O ± 60%
Other materials: H 3%
  C 20 %
  O ± 9 %
  N ± 3 %
  Ca ± 2,5 %
  P ± 1,1 %
  Other elements ± <1 %




IV. Bonding distances between atoms, in 10-10 M

H-H

0,74

H-F

0,92

N≡N

1,10

C-F

1,38

F-F

1,42

H-Cl

1,27

C≡C

1,21

C-Cl

1,77

Cl-Cl

1,99

H-Br

1,41

C≡N

1,16

C-Br

1,94

Br-Br

2,28

H-I

1,60

C=O (CO2)

1,16

C-I

2,14

I-I

2,67

H-O

0,96

C=O

1,22

C-O

1,43

N-N

1,47

N-H

1,01

C=C

1,35

H-S

1,34

C-C

1,54

C-H

1,08

O=O

1,21

P-H

1,42



V. The elements and some properties

   
 
1
=
elements
2
=
symbol
3
=
atom-
number
4
=
atom-
mass
5
=
electro
negati
vity
6
=
melting-
point
7
=
boiling-
point
8
=
atom-
ray
x
10-12m
9
=
ion-
ray
x
10-12m
10
=
v-d-Waals
ray
x
10-12m
Actinium Ac 89   1,1 1324 3500 188    
Aluminum Al 13 27 1,6 933 2792 143 45  
Americium Am 95   1,3 1400 2900 173    
Antimony Sb 51 121,8 2,1 904 1860 141 245 220
Argon Ar 18 39,9   84 87     192
Arsenic As 33 74,9 2,2 1090 887 121 222 200
Astatin At 85   2,2 575 610 140    
Barium Ba 56 137,3 0,9 1000 2170 217 134  
Beryllium Be 4 9,0 1,6 1560 2744 112 30  
Berkelium Bk 97   1,3 1300 2900 172    
Bismuth Bi 83 209,0 2,0 545 1837 170    
Boron B 5 10,8 2,0 2348 4273 88 16 217
Bromine Br 35 79,9 3,0 266 332 114 196 195
Cadmium Cd 48 112,4 1,7 594 1040 149 97  
Calcium Ca 20 40,1 1,0 1115 1757 197 94  
Californium Cf 98   1,3 1200 1700 199    
Carbon C 6 12,0 2,6 3823 4098 77   185
Cerium Ce 58 140,1 1,1 1070 3698 183 101  
Cesium Cs 55 132,9 0,9 302 944 262 167  
Chromium Cr 24 52,0 1,6 2180 2944 125 63  
Chlorine Cl 17 35,5 3,2 172 239 99 181 180
Cobalt Co 27 58,9 1,7 1968 3200 125 74  
Copper Cu 29 63,5 1,8 1357 2835      
Curium Cm 96     1600 3400 174    
Dysprosium Dy 66 162,5 1,2 1681 2835 175    
Einsteinium Es 99     1100 1800 203    
Erbium Er 68 167,3   1802 3136 173    
Europium Eu 63 152,0   1099 1875 204    
Fluorin F 9 19,0 4,0 54 85 64 133 135
Francium Fr 87   0,9 300 950 270 180  
Gadolinium Gd 64 157,3 1,1 1585 3534 179    
Gallium Ga 31 69,7 1,8 303 2477 141    
Germanium Ge 32 72,6 2,0 1211 3106 122   202
Gold (Aurum) Au 79 197,0 1,4 1337 3129 144 137  
Hafnium Hf 72 178,5 1,2 2506 4876 144    
Helium He 2 4,0   2 4 157   99
Hydrogen H 1 1,0 2,2 14 20 30   120
Holmium Ho 67 164,9 1,2 1738 2968 174    
Indium In 49 114,8 1,5 430 2345 166    
Iodine I 53 126,9 2,7 387 458 133 219 215
Iridium Ir 77 192,2 1,6 2719 4701 135    
Iron (Ferrum) Fe 26 55,8 1,6 1811 3134 126 76  
Krypton Kr 36 83,8   116 120     197
Lantanium La 57 138,9 1,1 1193 3728 188    
Lead Pb 82 207,5 1,6 601 2022 175 120  
Lithium Li 3 6,9 1,0 454 1615 152 68  
Lutetium Lu 71 175,0 1,2 1928 3668 172    
Magnesium Mg 12 24,3 1,2 923 1363 160 65  
Manganese Mn 25 54,9 1,6 1915 2334 129 80  
Mercury Hg 80 200,6 1,4 234 630 152 127  
Molybdenium Mo 42 95,9 1,3 2856 4912 136    
Neodymium Nd 60 144,2 1,2 1293 3300 181    
Neon Ne 10 20,2   25 27     160
Niobium Nb 41 92,9 1,2 2750 5017 141    
Nickel Ni 28 58,7 1,8 1728 3186 124 72  
Nitrogen N 7 14,0 3,0 63 77 70 171 150
Osmium Os 76 190,2 1,5 1828 3236 134    
Oxigen O 8 16,0 3,4 54 90 66 146 140
Palladium Pd 46 106,4 1,4 1828 3236 138    
Phosphorus P 15 31,0 2,1 317 550 110 212 190
Platinum Pt 78 195,1 1,4 2042 4098 138    
Plutonium Pu 94     910 3600 159    
Polonium Po 84   1,8 527 1235 140    
Potassium K 19 39,1 0,8 336 1032 231 133  
Praseodimium Pr 59 140,9 1,2 1208 3785 182    
Promethium Pm 61   1,2 1341 3003 183    
Protactinium Pa 91   1,5 1800 4400 156    
Radium Ra 88   0,9 972 1413 220 148  
Radon Rn 86     202 211      
Rhenium Re 75 186,2 1,9 3459 5869 137    
Rhodium Rh 45 102,9 2,3 2237 2968 134    
Rubidium Rb 37 85,5 0,8 312 961 244 148  
Ruthenium Ru 44 101,1 2,2 2607 4423 133    
Samarium Sm 62 150,4 1,2 1345 2064 180    
Scandium Sc 21 45,0 1,2 1814 3195 160    
Selenium Se 34 79,0 2,6 494 958 117 202 200
Silicon Si 14 28,1 1,9 1687 3538 117   224
Silver Ag 47 107,9 1,9 1235 2435 144 126  
Sodium Na 11 23,0 0,9 371 1156 186 98  
Strontium Sr 38 87,6 1,0 1050 1655 215 110  
Sulphur S 16 32,1 2,5 388 718 104 190 185
Tantalium Ta 73 180,9 1,3 3269 5731 143    
Thallium Tl 81 204,4 2,0 577 1746 171    
Technetium Tc 43   1,9 2430 4538 135    
Tellurium Te 52 127,6 2,1 723 1261 137 222 220
Terbium Tb 65 158,9 1,2 1629 3396 167    
Tin (Stannium) Sn 50 118,7 1,7 505 2875 162 112  
Titanium Ti 22 47,9 1,5 1941 3560 146 90  
Thorium Th 90 232,0 1,3 2000 4800 180    
Thullium Tm 69 168,9 1,2 1818 2221 172    
Uranium U 92 238,0 1,4 1400 4200 138    
Vanadium V 23 50,9 1,6 2183 3680 131    
Tungsten (Wolfframium) W 74 183,9 2,4 3695 5828 137    
Xenon Xe 54 131,3   161 165     217
Ytterbium Yb 70 173,0 1,1 1097 1467 194    
Yttrium Y 39 88,9 1,1 1799 3609 180    
Zinc Zn 30 65,4 1,7 693 1180 133 74  
Zirconium Zr 40 91,2 1,3 2128 4682 157    




VI.  BONDING ENERGIES

    x 100 kJ/mole

H-H

- 4,36

H-F

- 5,63

N≡N

- 9,45

C-F

- 4,4

F-F

- 1,53

H-Cl

- 4,32

C≡C

- 8,3

C-Cl

- 3,3

Cl-Cl

- 2,43

H-Br

- 3,66

C≡N

- 8,9

C-Br

- 2,8

Br-Br

- 1,93

H-I

- 2,99

C=O

- 8,0

C-I

- 2,4

I-I

- 1,51

H-O

- 4,646

C=S

- 2,6

C-O

- 3,5

H-O (alcanol)

- 4,5

N-H

- 3,9

C=C

- 6,1

H-S

- 3,44

C-C

- 3,5

C-H

- 4,1

O=O

- 4,98

P-H

- 3,22




VII. PHASES

faseovergang (42K)



VIII. Indicators

INDICATOR colour at low pH transition zone colour at high pH
hematoxiline red 0,0 - 1,0 yellow
cresolred red 0,2 - 1,8 yellow
thymolblue red 1,2 - 2,8 yellow
dimethylyellow red 2,9 - 4,0 yellow
methylorange red 3,1 - 4,4 orange-yellow
methylred red 4,0 - 6,0 yellow
bromophenolred yellow 5,2 - 6,8 violet
litmus red 5,5 - 8,0 blue
bromothymolblue yellow 6,0 - 7,6 blue
phenolred yellow 6,8 - 8,4 red
thymolblue yellow 8,0 - 9,6 blue
phenolftaleine colourless 8,2 - 10 carminred
alizarine-R-yellow yellow 10,1 - 12 violetblue
1,3,5-trinitrobenzene colourless 12 - 14 orange




IX. NOMENCLATURE IN CARBONCHEMISTRY

general name general formula remarks
Alkanes CnH2n+2 just single C-C bondsalleen
in the molecules
Alkenes CnH2n  double C=C bonds in the molecules
Alkynes CnH2n-2 threfold C≡C bond in the molecules
Cycloalkanes  CnH2n  
Benzene C6H6  


The main chain of the molecule:
  1. normally is the longist chain;
  2. contains a double or threefold bonding or the functional group (if present);
  3. has as a suffix: -ane, -ene, -yne enz.
  4. gives the molecule its main name, bases on de number of C-atoms in the main chain.


Only 1 C-atom: met...   six C-atoms: hex.....
Two C-atoms: et.....   Seven C-atoms: hept......
Three C-atoms: prop.....   Eight C-atoms: oct.......
Four C-atoms: but......   Nine C-atoms: non......
Five C-atoms: pent.......   Ten C-atoms: dec........


  1. Carbon side chains always have suffix -yl
  2. the number of side chains and of funcional groups are counted and named: Mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, etc.
  3. The molecule can contain primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary C-atoms.


name general
formula
suffix example comment /
alternative
alkane CnH2n+2 -aan propaan- (4K)
propane
saturated
alkene CnH2n -ene propeen- (4K)
Propene
unsaturated
Alkyne CnH2n-2 -yne propyn- (4K)
Propyne
unsaturated
Alkyl- CnH2n+1 -- -yl
ethyl- (3K)
Ethyl---
side chaine/branche
cyclo-alkane CnH2n -ane
cyclobutaan- (2K)
cyclo-butane
isomer with alquenes/ saturated
alkanol CnH2n+1 -OH -ol
propanol1- (3K)
1-propanol
prefix: hydroxy; /
also called: alcohol
alkanal CnH2n+1-CHO -al
propanal- (3K)
Propanal
aldehyde
alkanone
CnH2n+1-

-CO-CmH2m+1
-on
propanon- (3K)
Propanone
a ketongroup is present
alkanoic acid CnH2n+1-COOH  
ethaanzuur- (3K)
ethanoic acid
acetic acid
Alkoxy-alkane CnH2n+1- O-
CmH2m+1

methoxi-ethaan- (3K)
Methoxy-ethane
Ether (2 alkylgroups connected via an O atom)
Alkyl-alkan(o)ate CnH2n+1-COO- /
CmH2m+1
-yl -oaat
methylethan(o)aat- (3K)
Methyl-ethanoate
an ester
Alkylamina (prim) CnH2n+1-NH2 -amina
aminopropaan- (3K)
propyl-amina or: 1 aminopropane
prefix: amino-
nitro-alkane CnH2n+1-NO2   nitropropaan- (3K)
1-nitro propane
prefix: nitro-
peptide
CnH2n+1-NH-CO-CmH2m+1
  peptide- (3K)  




X. REDOX Half reactions

oxydators             pijlen (8K)  reductors      
F2 + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  2F-      
H2O2 + 2H+ + 2e-     pijlen (8K)  2H2      
PbO2 + SO42 - + 4H + 2e- pijlen (8K)  PbSO4 + 2H2O  
MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e-     pijlen (8K)  Mn2+ + 4H2O  
Au3+ + 3e-         pijlen (8K)  Au      
Cl2 + 2e-          pijlen (8K)  2Cl-      
Cr2O72- + 14H + 6e-     pijlen (8K)  2Cr3+ + 7H2O  
MnO2 + 4H+ + 2e-     pijlen (8K)  Mn2+ + 2H2O  
O2 + 4H+ + 4e-     pijlen (8K)  2H2O      
Br2 + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  2Br-      
NO3 + 2H+ + e-     pijlen (8K)  NO2 + H2O  
Ag+ + e-         pijlen (8K)  Ag      
Fe3+ + e-         pijlen (8K)  Fe2+      
I2 + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  2I-      
MnO4- + 2H2O + 3e-     pijlen (8K)  MnO2 + 4OH-  
Cu2+ + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  Cu      
Cu2+ + e-         pijlen (8K)  Cu+      
S + 2H+ + 2e-     pijlen (8K)  H2S      
S4O62- + 2e-          pijlen (8K)  2S2O32- + H2O  
2H+ + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  H2      
SO42- + 2H+ + 2e-     pijlen (8K)  SO32- + H2O  
Pb2+ + 2e-          pijlen (8K)  Pb       
Ni2+ + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  Ni      
PbSO4 + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  Pb  + SO42-  
Fe2+ + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  Fe      
+ 2e-          pijlen (8K)  S2-      
2 CO2 + 2H+ + 2e-     pijlen (8K)  H2C2O4      
Zn2+ + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  Zn      
2H2O + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  H2 + 2OH-  
Al3+  + 3e-          pijlen (8K)  Al      
Mg2+ + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  Mg      
Al(OH)4- + 3e-         pijlen (8K)  Al  + 4OH-  
Na+ + e-         pijlen (8K)  Na      
Ba2+ + 2e-          pijlen (8K) Ba      
Ca2+ + 2e-         pijlen (8K)  Ca      
K+  + e-          pijlen (8K)  K      
the lower,   the weaker the oxidator           the lower,   the stronger the reductor  




XI. SOLUBILITY OF SALTS IN WATER

  OH- O2- Cl- Br- I- S2- SO32- SO42- CO32- PO43- NO3- CH3COO-
Na+
+
R
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
K+
+
R
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
NH4+
 
 
+
+
+
D
+
+
D
D
+
+
Ca2+
±
R
+
+
+
±
-
±
-
-
+
+
Ba2+
+
R
+
+
+
±
-
-
-
-
+
+
Ag+
 
-
-
-
-
-
-
±
-
-
+
±
Pb2+
-
-
±
±
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
+
Hg+
 
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+
±
Hg2+
 
-
+
±
-
-
 
R
-
-
+
+
Cu2+
-
-
+
+
 
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
Al3+
-
-
+
+
+
R
+
+
 
-
+
+
Fe2+
-
-
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
Fe3+
-
-
+
+
 
-
 
+
 
-
+
+
Mg2+
-
-
+
+
+
±
-
+
-
-
+
+
Zn2+
-
-
+
+
+
-
-
+
-
-
+
+
+: soluble -: insoluble ±: a bit soluble R: reacts with water D: decomposes int water
Hydrogensalts are normally soluble in water,
just like salt with Sodium-, Potassium- or Ammonium-ions.



XII. DECIMAL PREFIXES

Tera T 1012 1 000 000 000 000
Giga G 109 1 000 000 000
Mega M 106    1 000 000
Kilo k 103 1 000
Hecto h 102 100
Deca da 101                           10
Deci d 10-1   0,1
Centi c 10-2   0,01
MiLli m 10-3   0,001
Micro m 10-6    0,000 001
Nano n 10-9   0,000 000 001
Pico p 10-12    0,000 000 000 001




XIII.  DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES

  1. MAC: maximum allowable concentration, mg/m3
  2. General rule: consult a practitionar / hospital 
  3. O: vomit
  4. W: drink or flush lots of water            
  5. F: fresh air
Trivial name
scientific
name 
formulas
s/l/g
MAC
value
danger/div>
toxicicity
1 - 5
do what?
acetilene
ettyn
H-C≡C-H
g
 
explosive
1
WF / O
Aceton
propanon
CH3COCH3
l
1780
inflamable
2
WF
hydrocloric acid
hydrogenchloride
HCl (aq)
aq
7
itching
2
W
sulphuric acid
H2SO4
1
aq
 
itsching
2
W
alkohol
ethanol
CH3CH2OH
1
1000
 
1
W
ammonia
 
NH3
g / aq
18
dangerous vapor
2
WF
Arsenic + derivates
 
As3+
s
0,03
poisenous
5
W
benzene
 
C6H6
1
7,5
 
 
WF
bromium
 
Br2
l / aq
0,7
carcinogenic
suffocating
2
O
limestone
calciumoxide
CaO
s
5
 
1
W
carbide
calcium carbide
C22- /  CaC2
s
 
explosive
2
sand over it
Lead and derivates
 
Pb
s
0,15
poisonous
4
W
cyanides
 
CN-
s
5
poisonous
4
 
chlorine
 
Cl
g / aq
3
poisonous
4
WF
chlorophorm
trichloromethane
CHCl3
1
5
dangerous vapors
1
WF
sulphurdioxyde
 
SO2
g
5
 
3
WF
ether
Ethoxi-ethane
CH3CH2-O-CH2CH3
1
1200
explosive
1
WF
phenol
hydroxybenzene
C6H5OH
l
19
itching
2
 
fluorine
 
F2
g
2
poisonous
4
 
phormalina
Methanal
CH2O
l
1,5
itching
1
W
petrol
Octanes
C8H18
l / g
 
explosive
1
WF
glycol
1.2 dihydroxy-ethane
HO-CH2-CH2-OH
l
26
headache
2
O
Na/K hydroxide (aq)
 
NaOH / KOH
aq
2
itching
1
W
Iodine
 
I2
s
1
headache
2
W
chlorine cleaning
Sodium hypochlorite
NaClO
s  /  aq
 
itching
2
W
mercury
 
Hg / Hg2+
l
0,05
poisonous
5
W (milk)
methylalcohol
Methanol
CH3OH
l
260
poisonous
3
O
carbon monoxyde
 
CO
g
29
poisonous
4
WF
silver nitrate
 
AgNO3
s
0,01
itching
 
W
nitrogen oxydes
 
NxOy  (NO2 NO3 etc)
g
4
headache
3
WF
ozon
 
O3
g
 
poisonous
3
WF
hydrogen peroxyde
 
H2O2
l
1,4
burns skin/ explosive
2
W
Tetra
tetracloromethane
CCl4
l
12,6
poisonous
3
 




XIV. THE BLOCKS OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

ps3 (19K)



XV. MAIN GROUPS OF THE PERIODIC TABLE

ps2 (24K)



XVI. AMINO ACIDS

aminozuren01 (30K)
aminozuren02 (29K)