Conductibility for electrical current
Matter, wether a pure substance or a mixture, can conduct electrical current when in that Matter there are present: charged particles that can move freely with sufficient movability.
So if ions can move freely in a substance or in a mixture (like molten or dissolved salt), then that substance conducts electricity.
One conducting substance will conduct better than the other; not all conductors are equal, have the same quality.
The conductibility depends on:
Applications of the conducting substances can be found, for example: in current wiring, electrodes, salt bridges, electrolysis.
- The concentration of the charged particles, their number; the more charged particles, the better the conductibility. A high concentration conducts better than a low concentration.
- The movability of the charged particles. Small ions mostly conduct better than big ones. Note that here the phenomena hydratation (surrounding water molecules) can have big influence.
Sometimes small ions can be hindered in its movability by those surrounding water molecules.
- A hydratated ion moves slower, but mind: hydratated Hydrogen ions have a special mechanism to move extremely fast. They can conduct very well. The H+ of the H3O+-ions are superquickly transported from one ion to the other.
The substances below do conduct electricity.
- All metals
- Solutions with ions
- Molten kitchen salt