Weak and strong

An acid base reaction, in principle, will always be a chemical equilibrium, often with very strong substances at one side and weak substances at the other side of the arrows.
The equilibrium dislocates/shifts always to the side of the weak substances, and those weak substances 'survive'.

The very simplified rule:
When in the acid base table an acid is higher located than the base, a reaction will take place.
Behind this rule is of course a reason: stronger acids react with stronger bases and produce weaker bases and weaker acids. In the table the stronger acids are positioned more up, and the stronger bases more down.
Always the strong ones cause a reaction in favor of the weak ones.